Choosing War

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Choosing War Ebook Summary Download


Download Choosing War free pdf ebook online. Choosing War is a book by , on 2016-06-01. Enjoy reading 336 pages by starting download or read online Choosing War.


By : ,
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2016-06-01
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Oxford University Press
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Throughout US history, presidents have had vastly different reactions to naval incidents. Though some incidents have been resolved diplomatically, others have escalated to outright war. What factors influence the outcome of a naval incident, especially when calls for retribution mingle with recommendations for restraint? Given the rise of long range anti-ship and anti-air missile systems, coupled with tensions in East Asia, the Persian Gulf, and the Black and Baltic Seas, the question is more relevant than ever for US naval diplomacy. In Choosing War, Douglas Carl Peifer compares the ways in which different presidential administrations have responded when American lives were lost at sea. He examines in depth three cases: the Maine incident (1898), which led to war in the short term; the Lusitania crisis (1915), which set the trajectory for intervention; and the Panay incident (1937), which was settled diplomatically. While evaluating Presidents William McKinley, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt's responses to these incidents, Peifer lucidly reflects on the options they had available and the policies they ultimately selected. The case studies illuminate how leadership, memory, and shifting domestic policy shape presidential decisions, providing significant insights into the connections between naval incidents, war, and their historical contexts. Rich in dramatic narrative and historical perspective, Choosing War offers an essential tool for confronting future naval crises.

Choosing Against War Ebook Summary Download


Download Choosing Against War free pdf ebook online. Choosing Against War is a book by John Roth on 2002-08-01. Enjoy reading 206 pages by starting download or read online Choosing Against War.


By : John Roth
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2002-08-01
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Skyhorse
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By a leading writer and thinker. How might Christians look on the world differently if they actually believed that God's love is indeed stronger than our fears? In fresh, confessional language, Roth shares his convictions about Christian pacifism, inviting others to consider this approach, all the while humbly admitting the difficulties. In the face of violence, are there any options open to the Christian believer other than the "default" impulse toward patriotic unity and a steely determination to exact "an eye for an eye"? A must-read for anyone concerned about the endless cycles of wars and violence, and the possibility that God's love is stronger than our society's current answers.

Civil War II Ebook Summary Download


Download Civil War II free pdf ebook online. Civil War II is a book by Declan Shalvey on 2016-11-09. Enjoy reading 144 pages by starting download or read online Civil War II.


By : Declan Shalvey
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2016-11-09
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Marvel Entertainment
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Collects Civil War II: Choosing Sides #1-6. If you knew something bad was about to happen, how far would you go to stop it? The line is drawn as that question divides the Marvel Universe. And when a major loss sends shockwaves through the super-hero community, everyone will be forced to reconsider whether they chose the right side! Face these fateful decisions alongside Nick Fury, Night Thrasher, War Machine, Punisher, Kate Bishop, Jessica Jones, Colleen Wing and Tom Foster, a.k.a. Goliath! Friendships are shattered among the Avengers! Alpha Flight and the White Fox join the fray as the conflict goes global! And as the collateral damage mounts, somebody call Damage Control!

War and Individual Rights Ebook Summary Download


Download War and Individual Rights free pdf ebook online. War and Individual Rights is a book by Kai Draper on 2015-10-01. Enjoy reading 272 pages by starting download or read online War and Individual Rights.


By : Kai Draper
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2015-10-01
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Oxford University Press
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Kai Draper begins his book with the assumption that individual rights exist and stand as moral obstacles to the pursuit of national no less than personal interests. That assumption might seem to demand a pacifist rejection of war, for any sustained war effort requires military operations that predictably kill many noncombatants as "collateral damage," and presumably at least most noncombatants have a right not to be killed. Yet Draper ends with the conclusion that sometimes recourse to war is justified. In making his argument, he relies on the insights of John Locke to develop and defend a framework of rights to serve as the foundation for a new just war theory. Notably missing from that framework is any doctrine of double effect. Most just war theorists rely on that doctrine to justify injuring and killing innocent bystanders, but Draper argues that various prominent formulations of the doctrine are either untenable or irrelevant to the ethics of war. Ultimately he offers a single principle for assessing whether recourse to war would be justified. He also explores in some detail the issue of how to distinguish discriminate from indiscriminate violence in war, arguing that some but not all noncombatants are liable to attack.

The War Against the Working Class Ebook Summary Download


Download The War Against the Working Class free pdf ebook online. The War Against the Working Class is a book by Will Podmore on 2015-05-29. Enjoy reading 342 pages by starting download or read online The War Against the Working Class.


By : Will Podmore
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2015-05-29
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Xlibris Corporation
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This book traces the history of revolutions and counterrevolutions since 1917, in Russia, Korea, Vietnam, China, the countries of Eastern Europe, and Cuba. I present the evidence of their achievements and describe the wars they were forced to fight in self-defence. We can learn from the efforts and the errors of the pioneers, even though their conditions of being pre-industrial and dependent societies were very different from Britain’s today. The hope is that this book will provoke thought about the future of our nation in order to help us to decide what we need to do, not to copy but to create.

Embers of War Ebook Summary Download


Download Embers of War free pdf ebook online. Embers of War is a book by Fredrik Logevall on 2012-08-21. Enjoy reading 864 pages by starting download or read online Embers of War.


By : Fredrik Logevall
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2012-08-21
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Random House
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WINNER OF THE PULITZER PRIZE ONE OF THE MOST ACCLAIMED WORKS OF HISTORY IN RECENT YEARS Winner of the Francis Parkman Prize from the Society of American Historians • Winner of the American Library in Paris Book Award • Winner of the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Book Award • Finalist for the Cundill Prize in Historical Literature NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The Washington Post • The Christian Science Monitor • The Globe and Mail Written with the style of a great novelist and the intrigue of a Cold War thriller, Embers of War is a landmark work that will forever change your understanding of how and why America went to war in Vietnam. Tapping newly accessible diplomatic archives in several nations, Fredrik Logevall traces the path that led two Western nations to tragically lose their way in the jungles of Southeast Asia. He brings to life the bloodiest battles of France’s final years in Indochina—and shows how, from an early point, a succession of American leaders made disastrous policy choices that put America on its own collision course with history. An epic story of wasted opportunities and deadly miscalculations, Embers of War delves deep into the historical record to provide hard answers to the unanswered questions surrounding the demise of one Western power in Vietnam and the arrival of another. Eye-opening and compulsively readable, Embers of War is a gripping, heralded work that illuminates the hidden history of the French and American experiences in Vietnam. Praise for Embers of War “A balanced, deeply researched history of how, as French colonial rule faltered, a succession of American leaders moved step by step down a road toward full-blown war.”—Pulitzer Prize citation “This extraordinary work of modern history combines powerful narrative thrust, deep scholarly authority, and quiet interpretive confidence.”—Francis Parkman Prize citation “A monumental history . . . a widely researched and eloquently written account of how the U.S. came to be involved in Vietnam . . . certainly the most comprehensive review of this period to date.”—The Wall Street Journal “Superb . . . a product of formidable international research.”—The Washington Post

The Cold War Ebook Summary Download


Download The Cold War free pdf ebook online. The Cold War is a book by J.P.D. Dunbabin on 2014-01-14. Enjoy reading 688 pages by starting download or read online The Cold War.


By : J.P.D. Dunbabin
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2014-01-14
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Routledge
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The Cold War offers a brief but detailed treatment of one of the most complex eras of the 20th Century. In this fully revised second edition, J.P.D. Dunbabin, drawing on international scholarship and using much new material from communist sources, describes a world in which covert operations could be as important as outright diplomacy, 'soft' power as influential as 'hard', and in which competing ideologies ruled the hearts as much as the heads of the leaders in power. Dunbabin’s account is global in scope, taking into account the importance of players beyond the superpowers, and shedding light on the proxy conflicts such as those in Africa and the Middle East that, if not caused by the continuing stalemate between the great powers, were used as weapons within it.

Choosing Peace Ebook Summary Download


Download Choosing Peace free pdf ebook online. Choosing Peace is a book by Bridget Moix on 2019-04-24. Enjoy reading 168 pages by starting download or read online Choosing Peace.


By : Bridget Moix
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2019-04-24
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Rowman & Littlefield
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Drawing on the voices and experiences of community-based peace leaders around the world, this book envisions a new way of working together as a truly local and global peacebuilding field.

Why Leaders Lie Ebook Summary Download


Download Why Leaders Lie free pdf ebook online. Why Leaders Lie is a book by John J. Mearsheimer on 2011-01-07. Enjoy reading 160 pages by starting download or read online Why Leaders Lie.


By : John J. Mearsheimer
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2011-01-07
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Oxford University Press
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For more than two decades, John J. Mearsheimer has been regarded as one of the foremost realist thinkers on foreign policy. Clear and incisive, a fearlessly honest analyst, his coauthored 2007 New York Times bestseller, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, aroused a firestorm with its unflinching look at the making of America's Middle East policy. Now he takes a look at another controversial but understudied aspect of international relations: lying. In Why Leaders Lie, Mearsheimer provides the first systematic analysis of lying as a tool of statecraft, identifying the varieties, the reasons, and the potential costs and benefits. Drawing on a trove of examples, he argues that leaders often lie for good strategic reasons, so a blanket condemnation is unrealistic and unwise. Yet there are other kinds of deception besides lying, including concealment and spinning. Perhaps no distinction is more important than that between lying to another state and lying to one's own people. Mearsheimer was amazed to discover how unusual interstate lying has been; given the atmosphere of distrust among the great powers, he found that outright deceit is difficult to pull off and thus rarely worth the effort. Plus it sometimes backfires when it does occur. Khrushchev lied about the size of the Soviet missile force, sparking an American build-up. Eisenhower got caught lying about U-2 spy flights in 1960, which scuttled an upcoming summit with Krushchev. Leaders more often mislead their own publics, sometimes with damaging consequences. Though the reasons may be noble--Franklin Roosevelt, for example, lied to the American people about German U-boats attacking the destroyer Greer in 1940, to build a case for war against Hitler-they can easily lead to disaster, as with the Bush administration's falsehoods about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. There has never been a sharp analysis of international lying. Now a leading expert fills the gap with a richly informed and powerfully argued book.

A Time of Our Choosing Ebook Summary Download


Download A Time of Our Choosing free pdf ebook online. A Time of Our Choosing is a book by Todd S. Purdum on 2014-03-18. Enjoy reading 336 pages by starting download or read online A Time of Our Choosing.


By : Todd S. Purdum
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2014-03-18
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Times Books
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The authoritative account of America's most controversial war since Vietnam, a conflict in which "shock and awe" were not confined to the battlefield It was a war like no other the United States had ever fought. It began with the bombing of Saddam Hussein's bunker and ended with statues of the Iraqi dictator being toppled in downtown Baghdad, and it marked a turning point in America's relations with its enemies, its allies, and its sense of itself. Yet most Americans experienced the war as impressionistic and often confusing—the story of one battle here, one unit there, a report from one city, then another, without the larger context we so urgently needed. Each reporter had his "slice" of the war, it seemed, but no one had the whole story or the broad view. A Time of Our Choosing fills that gap brilliantly, drawing on the unparalleled resources and reportage of The New York Times. Todd S. Purdum, one of the paper's most gifted storytellers, traces the war in Iraq from the first rumblings after 9/11, to the diplomatic recriminations at the United Nations, to the battles themselves and their aftermath. He deftly rolls out the whole canvas before our eyes, showing how the individual "slices" fit together into a single, gripping drama. Purdum also explores the complex legacy of America's near-unilateral action. Since the 9/11 attacks, President George W. Bush has vowed that the United States would confront its enemies "at a time of our choosing," and Purdum shows in vivid terms what this choice has meant for our now transformed world.

National Security Entrepreneurs and the Making of American Foreign Policy Ebook Summary Download


Download National Security Entrepreneurs and the Making of American Foreign Policy free pdf ebook online. National Security Entrepreneurs and the Making of American Foreign Policy is a book by Vincent Boucher,Charles-Philippe David,Karine Prémont on 2020-11-12. Enjoy reading 480 pages by starting download or read online National Security Entrepreneurs and the Making of American Foreign Policy.


By : Vincent Boucher,Charles-Philippe David,Karine Prémont
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2020-11-12
Group : English Books
Publsh by : McGill-Queen\'s Press - MQUP
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Since the advent of the contemporary US national security apparatus in 1947, entrepreneurial public officials have tried to reorient the course of the nation's foreign policy. Acting inside the National Security Council system, some principals and high-ranking officials have worked tirelessly to generate policy change and innovation on the issues they care about. These entrepreneurs attempt to set the foreign policy agenda, frame policy problems and solutions, and orient the decision-making process to convince the president and other decision makers to choose the course they advocate. In National Security Entrepreneurs and the Making of American Foreign Policy Vincent Boucher, Charles-Philippe David, and Karine Prémont develop a new concept to study entrepreneurial behaviour among foreign policy advisers and offer the first comprehensive framework of analysis to answer this crucial question: why do some entrepreneurs succeed in guaranteeing the adoption of novel policies while others fail? They explore case studies of attempts to reorient US foreign policy waged by National Security Council entrepreneurs, examining the key factors enabling success and the main forces preventing the adoption of a preferred option: the entrepreneur's profile, presidential leadership, major players involved in the policy formulation and decision-making processes, the national political context, and the presence or absence of significant opportunities. By carefully analyzing significant diplomatic and military decisions of the Johnson, Nixon, Reagan, and Clinton administrations, and offering a preliminary account of contemporary national security entrepreneurship under presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Donald Trump, this book makes the case for an agent-based explanation of foreign policy change and continuity.

Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars Ebook Summary Download


Download Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars free pdf ebook online. Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars is a book by Mark Philip Bradley,Marilyn B. Young on 2008-04-30. Enjoy reading 336 pages by starting download or read online Making Sense of the Vietnam Wars.


By : Mark Philip Bradley,Marilyn B. Young
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2008-04-30
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Oxford University Press
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Making sense of the wars for Vietnam has had a long history. The question "why Vietnam?" dominated American and Vietnamese political life for much of the length of the wars and has continued to be asked in the decades since they ended. This volume brings together the work of eleven scholars to examine the conceptual and methodological shifts that have marked the contested terrain of Vietnam War scholarship. Editors Marilyn Young and Mark Bradley's superb group of renowned contributors spans the generations--including those who were active during wartime, along with scholars conducting research in Vietnamese sources and uncovering new sources in the United States, former Soviet Union, China, and Eastern and Western Europe. Ranging in format from top-down reconsiderations of critical decision-making moments in Washington, Hanoi, and Saigon, to microhistories of the war that explore its meanings from the bottom up, these essays comprise the most up-to-date collection of scholarship on the controversial historiography of the Vietnam Wars.

General de Gaulle's Cold War Ebook Summary Download


Download General de Gaulle's Cold War free pdf ebook online. General de Gaulle's Cold War is a book by Garret Joseph Martin on 2013-09-30. Enjoy reading 282 pages by starting download or read online General de Gaulle's Cold War.


By : Garret Joseph Martin
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2013-09-30
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Berghahn Books
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The greatest threat to the Western alliance in the 1960s did not come from an enemy, but from an ally. France, led by its mercurial leader General Charles de Gaulle, launched a global and comprehensive challenge to the United State's leadership of the Free World, tackling not only the political but also the military, economic, and monetary spheres. Successive American administrations fretted about de Gaulle, whom they viewed as an irresponsible nationalist at best and a threat to their presence in Europe at worst. Based on extensive international research, this book is an original analysis of France's ambitious grand strategy during the 1960s and why it eventually failed. De Gaulle's failed attempt to overcome the Cold War order reveals important insights about why the bipolar international system was able to survive for so long, and why the General's legacy remains significant to current French foreign policy.

Lessons in Disaster Ebook Summary Download


Download Lessons in Disaster free pdf ebook online. Lessons in Disaster is a book by Gordon M. Goldstein on 2013-09-03. Enjoy reading 320 pages by starting download or read online Lessons in Disaster.


By : Gordon M. Goldstein
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2013-09-03
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Times Books
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A revelatory look at the decisions that led to the U.S. involvement in Vietnam, drawing on the insights and reassessments of one of the war's architects "I had a part in a great failure. I made mistakes of perception, recommendation and execution. If I have learned anything I should share it." These are not words that Americans ever expected to hear from McGeorge Bundy, the national security adviser to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. But in the last years of his life, Bundy—the only principal architect of Vietnam strategy to have maintained his public silence—decided to revisit the decisions that had led to war and to look anew at the role he played. He enlisted the collaboration of the political scientist Gordon M. Goldstein, and together they explored what happened and what might have been. With Bundy's death in 1996, that manuscript could not be completed, but Goldstein has built on their collaboration in an original and provocative work of presidential history that distills the essential lessons of America's involvement in Vietnam. Drawing on Goldstein's prodigious research as well as the interviews and analysis he conducted with Bundy, Lessons in Disaster is a historical tour de force on the uses and misuses of American power. And in our own era, in the wake of presidential decisions that propelled the United States into another war under dubious pretexts, these lessons offer instructive guidance that we must heed if we are not to repeat the mistakes of the past.

The Origins of the Vietnam War Ebook Summary Download


Download The Origins of the Vietnam War free pdf ebook online. The Origins of the Vietnam War is a book by Fredrik Logevall on 2014-01-14. Enjoy reading 174 pages by starting download or read online The Origins of the Vietnam War.


By : Fredrik Logevall
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2014-01-14
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Routledge
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Why did the US make a commitment to an independent South Vietnam? Could a major war have been averted? Fredrik Logevall provides a concise, comprehensive and accessible introduction to the origins of the Vietnam War from the end of the Indochina War in 1954 to the eruption of full-scale war in 1965, and places events against their full international background.

Beyond Just War Ebook Summary Download


Download Beyond Just War free pdf ebook online. Beyond Just War is a book by D. Chan on 2016-06-01. Enjoy reading 223 pages by starting download or read online Beyond Just War.


By : D. Chan
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2016-06-01
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Springer
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Unlike most books on the ethics of war, this book rejects the 'just war' tradition, proposing a virtue ethics of war to take its place. Like torture, war cannot be justified. It answers the question: 'If war is a very great evil, would a leader with courage, justice, compassion, and all the other moral virtues ever choose to fight a war?'

Hubert Humphrey Ebook Summary Download


Download Hubert Humphrey free pdf ebook online. Hubert Humphrey is a book by Arnold A. Offner on 2018-08-21. Enjoy reading 512 pages by starting download or read online Hubert Humphrey.


By : Arnold A. Offner
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2018-08-21
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Yale University Press
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One of the great liberal politicians of the twentieth century, rediscovered in an important, definitive biography Hubert Humphrey (1911–1978) was one of the great liberal leaders of postwar American politics, yet because he never made it to the Oval Office he has been largely overlooked by biographers. His career encompassed three well†‘known high points: the civil rights speech at the 1948 Democratic Convention that risked his political future; his shepherding of the 1964 Civil Rights Act through the Senate; and his near†‘victory in the 1968 presidential election, one of the angriest and most divisive in the country’s history. Historian Arnold A. Offner has explored vast troves of archival records to recapture Humphrey’s life, giving us previously unknown details of the vice president’s fractious relationship with Lyndon Johnson, showing how Johnson colluded with Richard Nixon to deny Humphrey the presidency, and describing the most neglected aspect of Humphrey’s career: his major legislative achievements after returning to the Senate in 1970. This definitive biography rediscovers one of America’s great political figures.

Leaders at War Ebook Summary Download


Download Leaders at War free pdf ebook online. Leaders at War is a book by Elizabeth N. Saunders on 2011-05-27. Enjoy reading 312 pages by starting download or read online Leaders at War.


By : Elizabeth N. Saunders
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2011-05-27
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Cornell University Press
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One of the most contentious issues in contemporary foreign policy—especially in the United States—is the use of military force to intervene in the domestic affairs of other states. Some military interventions explicitly try to transform the domestic institutions of the states they target; others do not, instead attempting only to reverse foreign policies or resolve disputes without trying to reshape the internal landscape of the target state. In Leaders at War, Elizabeth N. Saunders provides a framework for understanding when and why great powers seek to transform foreign institutions and societies through military interventions. She highlights a crucial but often-overlooked factor in international relations: the role of individual leaders. Saunders argues that leaders’ threat perceptions—specifically, whether they believe that threats ultimately originate from the internal characteristics of other states—influence both the decision to intervene and the choice of intervention strategy. These perceptions affect the degree to which leaders use intervention to remake the domestic institutions of target states. Using archival and historical sources, Saunders concentrates on U.S. military interventions during the Cold War, focusing on the presidencies of Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson. After demonstrating the importance of leaders in this period, she also explores the theory’s applicability to other historical and contemporary settings including the post–Cold War period and the war in Iraq.

American Presidential Statecraft Ebook Summary Download


Download American Presidential Statecraft free pdf ebook online. American Presidential Statecraft is a book by Ronald E. Powaski on 2017-04-03. Enjoy reading 319 pages by starting download or read online American Presidential Statecraft.


By : Ronald E. Powaski
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2017-04-03
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Springer
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This book, the second of two volumes, examines the presidency in last half of twentieth century America and explores the successes and failures of presidents in their foreign policy initiatives. It examines each president's ability to apply his skills to a foreign policy issue in the face of opposition that may come from a variety of sources, including the Congress, the Pentagon, the State Department, the press, and often their own in-house advisers. This volume in particular focuses on John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George W. Bush.

Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965 Ebook Summary Download


Download Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965 free pdf ebook online. Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965 is a book by Pierre Asselin on 2013-08-02. Enjoy reading 352 pages by starting download or read online Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965.


By : Pierre Asselin
Language : English
Ratings : Very Good
Category : Books
Release Date : 2013-08-02
Group : English Books
Publsh by : Univ of California Press
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Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War opens in 1954 with the signing of the Geneva accords that ended the eight-year-long Franco-Indochinese War and created two Vietnams. In agreeing to the accords, Ho Chi Minh and other leaders of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam anticipated a new period of peace leading to national reunification under their rule; they never imagined that within a decade they would be engaged in an even bigger feud with the United States. Basing his work on new and largely inaccessible Vietnamese materials as well as French, British, Canadian, and American documents, Pierre Asselin explores the communist path to war. Specifically, he examines the internal debates and other elements that shaped Hanoi's revolutionary strategy in the decade preceding U.S. military intervention, and resulting domestic and foreign programs. Without exonerating Washington for its role in the advent of hostilities in 1965, Hanoi's Road to the Vietnam War demonstrates that those who directed the effort against the United States and its allies in Saigon were at least equally responsible for creating the circumstances that culminated in arguably the most tragic conflict of the Cold War era.